Drinking alcohol before and during pregnancy is related to changes in children’s face shape

Researchers used artificial intelligence to discover the changes in children’s facial shape and the relationship between the mother’s drinking before pregnancy and during pregnancy.Even if a small amount is a small amount of wine every week, it will make a difference.Face shape is an indicator of potential health and development.

This study was published in one of the world’s leading reproductive medical journals, "Human Reproductive". The study found this association among children who drink alcohol three months before pregnancy but stopped drinking during pregnancy.In addition, it found that even if the mother drinks less than 12 grams of alcohol every week -equivalent to a small cup of 175 ml of wine or 330 ml of beer, there is a relationship with the face shape.

This discovery is important because the shape of children’s facial facialness may indicate health and development.

Gennady Roshchupkin, a assistant professor and head of the Dutch Rotterdam Iralasmo Medical Center, said, said: "I would call this face ‘health mirror" because it reflects the overall health of the child.Children’s exposure to alcohol before birth will have a major adverse effect on their healthy development. If the mother often drinks a lot, this may cause fetal alcoholic spectrum disorder and fetal alcoholic score disorder, which reflects on the child’s face.

Fetal alcoholic spectrum disorder is defined as a combination of slow -growing, nerve injury and recognized facial development abnormalities.Symptoms include cognitive disorder, multiple dysfunction (ADHD), learning difficulties, memory problems, behavioral problems, and language delay.As we all know, the dysfunction of fetal alcohol scores is caused by drinking alcohol during pregnancy, especially alcoholism.However, so far, people have little knowledge of low drinking on children’s facial development, so they have little knowledge of their health.This is also the first study to study this issue in children from different racial backgrounds.

Researchers use artificial intelligence and deep learning to analyze three -dimensional images of children 3149 (13 children) and 2477 years (2009 children).These children are part of the Dutch Ren Research, which is a research on the study of a crowd -based pregnant woman and their children starting from the fetus.Children in this analysis were born between January 2006 and April 2009.

"Face is a complex shape. Analysis of it is a challenging task. 3D imaging is very helpful, but it needs more advanced algorithms to do this," Professor Roshchupkin said."For this task, we have developed an artificial intelligence -based algorithm that can obtain high -resolution 3D images on the face and generate 200 unique measurement values or ‘feature’.Former alcohol exposure, and developed hot maps to show specific facial features related to drinking alcohol.

The information about the amount of alcohol of the mother is obtained from the questionnaires completed in the early stages of pregnancy, the middle and late women.Researchers divide them into three groups: mothers (control groups) who do not drink before or during pregnancy, mothers who drink alcohol within three months before pregnancy, but stop drinking during pregnancy, and mothers who drink during pregnancy, including those who drink alcohol during pregnancyMother who drink only in the first three months of pregnancy, and the mothers who continue to drink during the whole pregnancy.

"We found that the nine -year -old children’s prenatal alcohol exposure and the face shape have a significant relationship. The more alcohol drinks the mothers, the greater the statistical changes., Chin, exuding and lower eyelids upper eyelid. "The first author of the research, Mr. Liu Xianjing, doctoral student of Professor Roshchupkin, said that he developed an artificial intelligence algorithm.

"Among a group of mothers who drink alcohol during pregnancy, we found that even if the mother drinks little during pregnancy, less than 12 grams per week can also be observed.This association shows the second time at such a low level of alcohol consumption.

The connection between drinking and face shape weakened among older children. When researchers checked the data of 13 -year -old children, they did not find a significant relationship.

"With the growth of children’s age and experience of other environmental factors, these changes may be reduced or covered by normal growth models. But this does not meanDuring the period, there is no determined level of safety drinking. It is recommended to stop drinking even before pregnancy to ensure the best health results of the mother and developmental fetus, "Professor Roshchupkin said."It is necessary to further investigate the correlation mechanism to fully understand how related to the development, and then weaken as the age increases.

Among the nine -year -old children, the researchers found that when they compared their mothers who had drinking before pregnancy but stopping pregnancy after pregnancy, and mother who continued to drink during pregnancy, the statistical facial features and mothers’ drinkingThe amount is related.

They also checked the data of women who drink alcohol in the early pregnancy but then stop drinking and continue to drink.The results are similar, which shows that these associations are mainly explained by the fetus exposed to alcohol three months before pregnancy.

Researchers wrote that the previous research on the development of children’s development of children’s postpartum in the past showed that the possible mechanism may be the mothers’ metabolic disorders, such as the problem of blood sugar levels and fatty liver diseases, which can also explain the connection with the face shape.However, further investigation is needed.

The advantage of the study is a large number of children from multiple racial backgrounds.Limitation includes data on drinking for more than three months before pregnancy. Mother may not fill in questionnaires about their drinking habits correctly, which may underestimate their consumption.Since this is a observation study, it cannot prove that drinking can cause changes in the face shape, and it can only prove that it is related to them.

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