The nutritional status of the fetus is mainly affected by the nutritional state of the mother, and other periods mainly depend on external food intake to obtain sufficient nutrition and maintain growth and development.The early childhood period refers to the stage of 1-3 years old, that is, from weaning to the transition period of ordinary diet.At this stage, the gastrointestinal gastrointestinal at this stage is not mature enough, the digestive power is not strong, the teeth are growing, and the chewing ability is limited. If it cannot provide intake nutrition reasonably and scientifically, it will affect weight growth and easily cause too fast or insufficient growth.The early childhood period is a special physiological stage. The good or bad of nutritional state during this period and the development of eating habits will lay the health foundation of a lifetime. Parents and friends, pay attention to it!
1. Guide children to eat regularly, 4-5 meals daily
The early childhood digestive system has not been fully developed, and the amount of eating is too large, which can easily cause indigestion.During the feeding process, you can choose to eat less meals to avoid increasing the burden on gastrointestinal tract.Guide and educate young children to eat themselves. Daily meals are 4-5 daily. The meal should be regular.
You should cultivate children’s concentrated attention when eating and suspend other activities.In addition, children should have a certain outdoor activity daily to balance two balances.The outdoor sunlight can promote the synthesis of its vitamin D, which is conducive to the absorption of calcium in the intestine, and promotes its bone development and dental calcification.
2. Eat foods with high nutrient density
The stomach capacity of young children is limited, and foods that are rich in nutrients and are rich in quality and easy to digest. Various nutrients should pay attention to matching.
First, animal blood, lean meat, fish, poultry, milk can be used alternately; grain can be combined with thickness.
Second, green, red and yellow vegetables contain more vitamin A, C and iron.
Third, soy products are rich in protein, calcium, and iron. They should be used more.
Fourth, no less than 350 ml of milk or corresponding dairy products daily. You should also pay attention to supply eggs and egg products, semi -fat poultry meat, liver, processed beans, and fine vegetables.
Fifth, eat some animal blood and seafood foods every week, but hard fruit foods are not suitable for young children to chew and digest.
Sixth, choose less pickled and waxy foods, try to use fresh food as much as possible.
3. Reasonable cooking, the diet is mainly light
First, ensure that food is fresh, pay attention to different foods for different foods.Toddlers’ food should be chopped and cooked and can easily chew, swallow and digest in young children; spines in fish, poultry bone dehuminating, and nuclear kernels to avoid stabilization of children’s infarction; hard fruit foods such as peanuts and soybeans should be grinded first first.Broken, as mud paste -like feeding, so as not to enter the air pipe.
Second, try to use semi -finished products and cooked foods, such as sausages, red intestines, ham, etc.; Children should not eat more fried foods, and should be steamed, boiled, stewed, and crickets.The taste is light, it should not be too salty, and it should not eat irritating foods, such as green onions, ginger, garlic, pepper, pepper, etc.Food monosodium glutamatus, pigmentation, sugar, sugar and other condiments should not be placed more.
4. Master the diet skills, prevent constipation and dental caries
First, eat more foods rich in dietary fiber, such as eating steamed pumpkin, roasted sweet potatoes or steamed sweet potatoes. In addition, it is also effective to eat soft fruits such as bananas, tomatoes, strawberries.
Second, the insufficient intake of oil will also cause constipation. The hemp sauce provides both unsaturated fatty acids, such as linoleic acid and linolenic acid, and also provides iron. Eat a large spoon every day to solve the problem of constipation.
Third, reduce sweets, especially do not eat pastry or candy before going to bed, let alone sleep with a bottle.
Fourth, eating crude fiber vegetables, during the chewing process, can exercise the gums, neither acids and clean teeth, can also reduce the surface of the food residue attachment to the tooth. Therefore, it is called anti -caries.Eating fiber vegetables before learning to brush your teeth can play a role in cleaning the oral cavity.Text/Gao Chunhai (Registered Nutritionist, Physician Registered by Tianjin Disease Prevention and Control Center)
How can infants and young children have less puzzle food?
It is widely circulated in the field: "What to eat, what to make up." Some foods are of great benefit to intellectual development. We usually call it puzzle food.Early puzzle foods in early pregnancy can promote the development of fetal brain cells, and the fetus is clever and strong after birth.At the stage of infants and young children, use puzzle foods to promote the normal growth and development of infants and young children, especially the brain nervous system and intellectual development.Here are several types of puzzle foods for you.
1. Bean and soy products: enhance memory, healthy brain
Soybean is rich in lecithin, which can release acetylcholine in the human body. Acetylcholine is a bridge that transmits information intermediary in the nerve cell, which is of great benefit to enhancing memory.Soy and soy products made of soybeans are also rich in nutrients such as protein, fat, potassium, zinc and other nutrients. They are known as "green milk" and are helpful for children’s intelligence.When young children have mental fatigue, limb weakness, and memory loss, they can often consume beans and soy products, and have functions such as healthy brain, nourishing blood, and relieving brain fatigue.
2. Fish based on seawater fish:
Improve vision and memory
Fish are rich in protein, unsaturated fatty acids, calcium, phosphorus, iron, vitamin B2 and other ingredients. They are all nutrients necessary for brain cell development.Fish oil contains polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as twenty carbonic acid (C20: 5), also known as EPA, two22 carbonic acid (C22: 6), also known as DHA.It has a certain effect.Because the unsaturated fatty acids contained in freshwater fish are not high in seawater fish, and the pollution of freshwater fish farming waters is serious, it is recommended that young children mainly consume seawater fish.
3. Food rich in iron: helps the brain supply oxygen
Iron cannot be synthesized by the body itself. The nutritional function of iron is hemoglobin transmission function; iron deficiency cause nutritional anemia.Iron enzymes are mainly involved in energy metabolism and oxidation reactions.The primary result of iron deficiency is anemia.
There is also an experiment that iron deficiency can cause damage and changes in psychological activity and intellectual development.Therefore, eating more iron -rich foods is conducive to the supply of oxygen supply and improvement of the brain.Iron dietary sources are very wide, but the absorption rate of iron in plant food in the human body is very low; calculated by the dietary intake, the iron intake is sufficient, but there are still iron deficiency anemia.The absorption rate of iron is too low.Meat is a good source of iron, because the iron in the meat is heme iron, and its absorption rate is 2-3 times higher than that of hemoglobin iron.In addition, some factors in meat can promote the absorption of iron in the meal.
4. Food rich in zinc: It is good for the development of each system
Zinc is a necessary trace element in the human body.The development of zinc on the immune system and the defense of the body and the role of central nervous activity have been established.Zinc deficiency caused loss of appetite, slow growth and development, and poor sexual development.
The content of zinc in food is very different due to food variety.In addition to grain germ, the zinc content in plant -based foods is low, and the acidic acid in plants also affects the absorption of zinc in the body.Therefore, it is recommended for zinc -rich red meat and shell foods as children or pregnant women’s food.
5. Food rich in iodine: iodine deficiency affects health
In addition to the iodine -deficientness, in addition to the disease and Katin disease, neuromuscular dysfunction occurs, which has an impact on reproductive and gland development.my country has implemented a iodine salt system, and the majority of residents’ consumption of iodine salt can prevent the occurrence of thyroid mysteria.The content of iodine in the meal does not cause iodine poisoning, and the iodine content in the seawater is high. Therefore, the iodine content of the dynamic and plants of the marine sources is high.
6. Egg: It is conducive to the development of children’s brain development
Egg categories are not only an excellent source of protein, but also the choline released after absorbing the lecithin in the egg yolk, which can synthesize acetylcholine. Acetylcholine can significantly improve the memory of children.In addition, the high content of iron and phosphorus in egg yolk is also conducive to the brain development of children. Therefore, children should be advocated to eat whole eggs.
7. Onion: Improving the supply of blood
Eating carrots often helps to strengthen the metabolism of the brain. Onions can dilute the blood and improve the blood supply to the brain, thereby eliminating psychological fatigue and excessive tension.
Text/Gao Chunhai (Registered Nutritionist, Physician Registered by Tianjin Disease Prevention and Control Center)
Source: Beijing Youth Daily