The tomb of the Jiangcun on the Bailu Plain on Bailu Plains, Shaanxi, was recently recognized as the Emperor’s Mausoleum of the Western Han Dynasty -Batling, which corrected the Millennium misunderstanding of traditional historical books such as "Editor -in -Chief An Zhi" about Buling.The formal confirmation of the geographical location of the Bausing has filled the important part of the research of the Emperor Western Han Dynasty, and all the famous positions of the Emperor’s Emperor’s Tombs were determined, but the mystery of the historical mystery around the Batsu and Emperor Wen was not fully unveiled.
For example, Emperor Wen Emperor, why did he change the two thousand years from the ancient businessmen Zhou to the Qin and Han dynasties from the ancient merchants and the old customs of the Qin and Han dynasties.
Why did the Emperor Wen violate the ancestral system and did not follow the emperor Gao Zu Liu Bang and the emperor Hui Emperor Liu Ying into the burial of Xianyangyuan royal tomb.
The structure layout surrounded by the middle and external funeral pits of the Da Ling Emperor is obviously different from Gao Zu Changling and Huidi Anling. What kind of subtle information is revealed?
The mystery of frugal burial
As early as ancient times, people had the concept of immortality."Book of Rites · Sacrifice" has the saying that "death is like life", and believes that the possession of property does not change essentially due to life and death. Wealth is not only the glory of showing off during life, but also the guarantee of life after death.During the Yin and Shang dynasties, this concept was even more intense. The soul of the ancestors was infinitely worshiped by future generations, and social psychology began to advocate thick burial.The archaeological excavation of Yin Shang noble royal tombs, Wangling is large in scale, the tomb is exquisite and luxurious, and the burial items are rich.
After the Zhou Dynasty, the wind of thick burial was inherited, and the tombs and funeral specifications of people of different strata had different regulations.The higher the status of the deceased during his lifetime, the more funerals.During the Spring and Autumn Period and the Warring States Period, the rituals collapsed, and the rituals and more burials beyond the ritual system were even more common.As the founder of China’s first unified dynasty, the luxurious burial of Emperor Qin Shi’s Mausoleum reached the degree of unpaid.
In the early years of the Western Han Dynasty, after the war in the late Qin Dynasty and the battle between Chu and Han, the population decreased and the economy was withered.According to the "Historical Records · Pingzhuang", at the time "from the emperor can’t have Jun Jun", the emperor did not use the four -powed horse -colored car to drive;;Middle -class family assets) can only buy one horse.
Although from Gaozu Liu Bang, the Han Dynasty implemented a restoration policy, but the social productive forces had not fully recovered after the Emperor Hui to the Emperor Wen.Under the objective constraints of the level of socioeconomic development at that time, Emperor Wen did not implement the economic foundation of burial.
But more importantly, Emperor Wen himself’s subjective thinking of governing the country.According to the "Historical Records of the Filial Filial Period", Emperor Wen was in the reign of 23 years, and there was no newly -made horses in the Guanxiu Tower Hall of Xinxiu Palace.It will not be dragged to the ground. There is no embroidery on the curtain.
Emperor Wen "tasted the terrace", so that the engineering and technical department was valued and found that it would take a hundred dollars.Emperor Wen believes that "The 10 -dollar Zhongmin’s property, I worshiped the Emperor’s Palace, often ashamed, why not do it." Baijin is equivalent to all the property of 10 households in 10 households.The terrace was even more sin, and stopped abolishing the matter.
Emperor Wen’s frugal attitude in this world will naturally project in the construction of his mausoleum behind him.Emperor Wen’s burial may still have concerns to prevent the grave robbers from being touched.
Because people take thick burial as a way to show off their position, a large number of treasures are gathered underground, and the phenomenon of grave robbing is created, and the severe punishment law cannot be contained.Wu Wangzheng’s tomb was buried in violation of the ceremony, and was stolen in less than 10 years.The famous tomb of Qin Gong 1 is the Qinjing Cemetery. The tomb is luxurious and the funeral is rich.When archaeologists excavated this tomb, just revealed the cultivation of the soil on the tomb, and found 247 theft holes; when it was excavated to the third level of the level, there were also more than 60 pirate holes.A stolen hole.Based on this, archaeologists speculated that the tomb of Qin Gong No. 1 has been stolen from the Han Dynasty to the Tang and Song dynasties, becoming the "Internet celebrity punching place" for the captain of the golden school.
During the Western Han Dynasty, the spirit of society was magnificent, and the rivers and lakes were very heavy. The "digging mounds" digging tombs became a common family to get rich. Emperor Hanwen must fully consider the problem of anti -theft in the construction of the emperor.
The construction of ancient Chinese emperors usually started from the throne of the emperor.In the first three years of the first Yuan (before 177), Emperor Wen had visited the progress of the Batling to inspect the progress of the project.Seeing that the Feng Shui of the Emperor Mausoleum is excellent and the construction is methodical, the Emperor Wen excitedly said, "嗟! With the northern mountain stone as the pupa, and the shame of the puppets," if you use the stone of Beishan to make a coffin, chopped the hemp, and chopped the hemp.Fill in the gap in the stone, and then use the paint to stick the stones and hemp.
The left and right ministers made a snoring vocal, and only Zhonglang said calmly Zhang Shizhi’s calmly, "make the desirable person, although there is still a gap in Nanshan," if there are things that people want, such as a large number of valuable funerals, Even if all the southern mountains such as Huashan Qinling Mountains are banned, there will be an opportunity to be available to be discovered;The generous funeral items of greed will be safe and sound even if they do not use stone coffins.After listening to Emperor Wen, he suddenly realized that he "called good".
Therefore, in the construction of Ba Ling, Wen Di "all use tiles, must not be decorated with gold, silver, copper tin", but only funeral pottery products, and no precious metals such as gold, silver, copper tin are decorated;It means that it is not only "desire to save the people, no trouble for the people", saving the people’s power, but also to avoid high graves and attract people.
In the seventh year of the last Yuan (157 before), Emperor Wen died in Weiyang Palace."It is believed that life and death are the natural destination of all things in the world. There is no need to sorrow, and it is quite pale about death.Born, I do n’t take it very much. ”It means that we must take the lead in eliminating the wind of burial. It is required that their sacrifice ceremony must not exceed three days. Three days after the people across the country must take off their filial piety, they must not be prohibited from marriage and funeral.There is no change. "It is the same as the original Buling Mountains and rivers, and there must be no changes.
The widow of Wendi is not a superficial article and a political show. Archaeologists have very few gold and silver decorative funerals found in Buling. Most of them are fired pottery figurines. There are only a small amount of small iron and bronze.Even pottery figurines are only one -third of the original, not practical utensils.The actual excavation of Baising Archeology basically confirms the records of the Emperor Wen’s burial in historical books.
However, in the Emperor Wensing, the mother of Bo Ling, who was about 2000 meters away from Ba Ling, archaeologists found hundreds of gold and silver jewelry with obvious exotic grassland style, and the pottery figurines were made according to the original.Belief than Emperor Emperor’s Mausoleum.This discovery not only confirms the truth of the relationship between Emperor Bo Emperor’s mother and filial piety in the history of the historical records, but also hides the secrets of the Emperor Emperor Buling, far from his father Emperor Gao Zu, Liu Bang Changling, and Emperor Hui Emperor Liu Ying Anling.
Stay away from the mystery of father and brother
After the establishment of the Han Dynasty, Liu Bangti set up the world, and set up a royal tomb area in Xianyangyuan, northwest of Chang’an. After the collapse, he was buried in Changling, Xianyang Yuan. His son Hui Emperor also built Anling in Xianyang Yuan to accompany his father and emperor.After the demonstration of the two generations of monarchs, the Han Dynasty Tianzi was buried in Xianyangyuan.
Emperor Hanhui died early and had no children. Lu’s foreign relatives represented by Lu Hou, Lu Na, and Lu Lu attempted to support the son of the non -Hui Emperor as the emperor to continue to control the government.The Hanjia Society is in danger.After the death of Lu Hou, Zhou Bo and Chen Ping, decisively launched a coup to kill Zhu Lu, the younger brother of Emperor Emperor, and Liu Bang’s oldest fourth son of the world, Liu Heng, was the emperor.
Emperor Wen inherited Dadong as the prince and went to the pinnacle of life, but faced a problem that could not be resolved in existing space in politics.In the Western Han Dynasty, the rules of the Emperor’s Mausoleum followed the "Zhao Mu system" in the Western Zhou Dynasty, that is, after the ancestor, the father was Zhao and the son was Mu.In the arranging of the tomb and the ranking of the Zongmiao, the father is the son of the ancestor is Zhao, in the left; the son is the grandson of the ancestor, on the right;In order to push.In Zhao Mu’s sequence, the father and son are always listed, and the grandchildren are always in the same column.
Specific to the pattern of Emperor’s Mausoleum of Xianyang Yuan, Gao Zu Liu Bang Changling lived in the left.As the son of Gao Zu, Emperor Hui lived in the position of Anling, on the right side of Changling, the west.According to the Zhao Mu system, the next emperor’s Mausoleum should be the east on the left side of Changling.However, Emperor Wen was not the son of Emperor Hui, but the mother of Emperor Hui, the son of Gao Zu, who belonged to the son of Gao Zu. He lived together and could not live in the left of Changling, which is the east.Emperor Wen was in an embarrassing situation where the construction of the emperor must not meet the source and cannot be questioned.
If the emperor’s tomb was continued in Xianyangyuan, not only could he not be able to lift the position of Emperor Wen himself, but the mother of the mother Bo Ji, the mother of Bo Ji, was quite embarrassing.
Bo Ji was originally one of the heroes of Wei, Wei Bao, who was one of the heroes of the Qin Dynasty. Wei Baoben and Liu Bang faced Xiang Yu together.Later, there was a face -to -face master who looked at Bo Ji, thinking that Bo Jigui was unable to say that he was born with the emperor.Wei Bao thought that he was in his life, and then escaped from Liu Bang’s neutrality, trying to conquer the world with his own power.Liu Bang was angry, sent general Cao Shen to destroy Wei Bao, and incorporated Bo Ji into the harem, but "he was unlucky."
Bo Ji later was able to sleep with the help of Mrs. Guan and Zhao Zier, who was loved by Liu Bang at this time, was able to sleep.According to "Han Book", Bo Ji told Liu Bang before the sleeping, "Yesterday, the Mu Menglong was based on his chest."Bo Ji "had a body" that night, and gave birth to the emperor after he was pregnant in October.However, Bo Ji did not change the situation after having a child, but continued to be favored.
It was because of the negligence that Bo Ji was released by Lu Hou, who was jealous. After Liu Bang’s death, he followed the son of the Wang Daiwang to live in Dai Guo to become the Queen Mother of the country, not like Liu Bang’s other pets.Ji is in a closed palace.
After Emperor Wen’s throne, the mother of the Empress Dowager Bo Yizhen was upgraded from the Empress Dowager to the Empress Dowager, but in front of her, there was still a genuine queen queen Lu Queen.If Emperor Wen built the emperor’s mausoleum in Xianyang Yuan, the mother’s mausoleum would also be placed here to burial Liu Bang Changling together, and it was necessary to lower the aftermath of the ritual level specifications.This is the "twenty -four filial piety" and the emperor Wen Emperor who tasted the soup for his mother cannot tolerate it.Therefore, he could only set up another way to choose the Emperor’s Mausoleum in the Bailu original camp in the southeast of Chang’an so that he could set up the mother’s mausoleum in accordance with the specifications of the Empress Dowager.
The reason why Emperor Wen chose Bailuyuan instead of building a mausoleum elsewhere was also closely related to the political situation of internal and external problems in the early Han Dynasty.This situation is not only related to the choice of the geographical location of the Bading, but also the layout of the mausoleum inside the Baga.
The mystery of the mausoleum layout
In the early Western Han Dynasty, the central court faced the dual pressure of the northwestern Huns and the vassal states of the southeast.At that time, the reason why Liu Bang chose to Xianyang, the Northwest as the royal tomb area, was that the large -scale setting up Lingyi and enriching the population around the emperor’s tomb to build Changan’s northwestern northwest to prevent the south of the Huns.Emperor Wen chose Bailuyuan, which also valued its high -open terrain advantage with low northwest and high southeast, and could form a geographical suppression of the vassal states in the southeast.
The premise of the Huns and the princes of the inner security is the enhancement of the internal cohesion of the central court and the enhancement of the emperor’s authority.Although Gao Zu Liu Bang is the founding of the founding country, his world is fighting with the heroes.Although Liu Bang formulated the expensiveness of the Emperor’s son through his uncle Sun Tong, he could not be replaced from his later years, and he could find that his imperial power was still deeply restricted by the hero group.Emperor Hui Liu Yingren was cowardly, not only controlled by his mother, but also suppressed by the heroes, let alone revitalize the imperial power.
After Emperor Wen entered the successor, he used a series of political wrists of "different treatments" and "combining" and "combined" to differentiate and disintegrate the hero group led by Chen Ping, Zhou Boyi and one martial arts to make a big shuffle on the senior executives of the court.The hero who came to power.At the same time, the rising star of Jia Yi and other post -rising rises, adopting the strategy of Jia Yi "Liehou to the country", and the army of Zhou Bo and other marks gradually drove out of Chang’an to live in the land, and gradually got rid of the containment of the power group in Changan.
Subsequently, under the plan of Jia Yi and others, Wen Emperor intends to raise the majesty of the emperor through the construction of the etiquette system.Archaeologists found in the Gaoling Ling District that more than 100 hidden pits of the officials of the official agency are surrounded by Emperor’s Mausoleum, showing a centrifugal political layout.This form of layout has not appeared in Gao Zu Changling and Huidi Anling, which reflects the fact that the imperial power is enhanced in the historical process of the Western Han Dynasty.
It is based on the enhancement of internal cohesion and the unity of the decree that Emperor Wen can use the main energy to deal with the issues of vassal states to strengthen centralization.Emperor Wen Emperor adopted the policy of "building princes and less power" in Jiayi’s "Public Security Policy", which initially resolved the two largest political hidden dangers of Qi State and Huainan State, so that the son Jingdi could easily calm Wu Chu in just three months.The "chaos of the seven nations" in the rebellion of the country finally laid the foundation for the emergence of "the governance of Wenjing" and the 400 -year -old Taiping Bureau of the Han Dynasty.(The author of Wu Peng is a doctor of history of Renmin University of China)
Source: China Youth Daily